White Pine

ontario white pine



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White Pine - Tree Plantation, Timber, Lumber and Veneer

Fast growing White pine trees are valuable in a tree plantation that grows clear grained knot free white pine sawlogs for clear dimensional lumber and high grade veneer. White pine is native to the Great Lakes region of North America but is now grown across both countries. White Pine is valuable as dimensional lumber, particularly as knot free veneer. Managed stands of White Pine can produce high grade sawlogs, veneer and pulpwood. The goal is to produce trees with long, straight, branch-free stems, which are highly valued for wood products. To encourage trees to compete for light and grow tall, rather than to branch at lower levels, stands of white pine should be thinned and pruned every 10 to 15 years as the trees grow to marketable size. The alternative to early pruning is to buy tall, clear grained branch free White Pine tree seedlings.

eastern white pine

White Pine - A Historic Tree

Pushed south and east during the last ice age by the southward expanding White Spruce forest, which was to extend as far south as northern North Carolina and eastward out onto the Continental Shelf, White Pine was to weather the Ice Age at the extreme eastern edge of the Continental Shelf and perhaps in some as yet undiscovered pockets in the southern foothills of the Appalachians. With the melting of the continental ice sheets and the slow rise of sea levels, White Pine moved westward, off the Continental Shelf, arriving in the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia about 12,700 years ago. Because it had to migrate north around the Appalachians and south around the Great Lakes, it would be some 3500 years after the arrival of Jack and Red Pines in Minnesota that they would be joined by White Pine. The western movement of White Pine was still ongoing in Minnesota when the first Europeans arrived. Native Americans were said to have used the inner bark as an emergency food source. The whitish resin which seeps out of the wounds of this tree was mixed with beeswax by the Iroquois and used to seal the seams of their canoes. New England forests were a valued source of 18th Century naval stores; large tracts were once reserved for exploitation by the Royal Navy. Heavy logging for building materials and furniture followed the westward course of settlement throughout the 18th and 19th centuries. Regeneration was poor because of the lack of seed trees and the destruction of remaining seedlings and saplings by fire (such as the great Hinkley Fire). Few uncut stands remain.

White Pine is the provincial tree of Ontario and the state tree of Maine and Michigan.

Eastern White Pine North American Growing Zones

Eastern White Pine native growing areas are concentrated in Eastern Canada and the United States, with the highest concentration in the provinces of Ontari and Quebec. Although native to Eastern North America, Easten White Pine may also be grown in microclimate areas of the Western States and Canada, principally in coastal interior areas of the province of British Columbia and Washington State.

white pine planting zones

White Pine Wood Products

White Pine wood is light, straight-grained and easily worked but not strong. White Pine is classified as softwood with a soft to medium wood density. Color varies from creamy white to pale straw, with occasional contrasting orange/brown growth rings. White Pine is used in cabinetmaking, furniture, interior finishes, woodenware, matches and lumber. The white pine produces the most valuable softwood lumber in eastern North America and is used extensively for interior trim, window sashes, door frames and for intricate carpentry. It is an excellent carving material. Lightweight, soft, even-textured, and easily worked, Eastern White Pine is probably the least resinous of all pines. It does not swell or shrink greatly with moisture content changes and displays remarkable durability as shown by the large number of houses built of Eastern White Pine in New England 200 and more years ago. Because of these desirable characteristics, Eastern White Pine uses include millwork, knotty pine paneling, siding and boards for boxes, crates, coffins, boats, woodenware, and novelties. White Pine is also grown extensively as Christmas trees.

The following comments where collected from a national wood products discussion forum using White Pine in the United States.

Comment from contributor A:

White pine is a preferred species in the market place. I know this because that in stumpage, log, or lumber form it brings a higher dollar return. In almost any market condition prices for eastern white pine lumber select grades will exceed red oak selects, the molding and shop grades will compete favorably with number one and number two common red oak, and the common grades easily outstrip the number two and number three grades of red oak. The comparison is even more dramatic when compared to other eastern softwoods such as red pine, jack pine, spruce and balsam fir.

Comment from contributor B:

One of the big problems with planting White Pine seedlings is that deer browse on the young seedlings, either taking the whole tree or just eating the top terminal bud. On average, nearly 70% of newly transplanted White Pine seedlings are lost every winter. The only way to protect the seedlings is to either construct a deer fence or cover each tree with a tree cap or tube but these are expensive solutions. Planting taller seedlings that would be out of the deer’s reach would seem to be a cheaper solution.

Comment from contributor C:

There is a definite correlation between tree size and economic value. Although trees are limb pruned early on to improve microclimate and thereby reduce blister rust of juvenile trees, an equally important reason is to start creating clear boles. Eventually, trees are pruned free of limbs to an eighteen foot height. Since crop trees are headed for a long life and large diameter, this early limb pruning pays great economic dividends. Left to natural pruning phenomenon, the trees would have to reach 100 plus years before their trunks would be growing clear faces. And since there is a manifold differential between the value of clear wood and knot-studded wood in white pine lumber (or in any lumber or veneer for that matter) early pruning is dramatically valuable.

White Pine Tree Seedlings

White Pine seedlings are grown from seed and then transplanted in the nursery where we use proprietary propagation methods to grow tall, knot free veneer quality saplings to an average height of 10 feet in 5 years. These tall seedlings allow tree plantation owners to harvest valuable sawlogs much sooner.

pine plantation

Pine Plantations

White Pine plantations are becoming more common in Southern Ontario and the Great Lakes States. Once the dominant tree, it is rare to find a tall, clear-grained tree of any size in these areas.

Plantation Costs

White Pine plantation costs average between $500 and $800 per acre depending on how many acres are planted per project – the more acres the lower the cost. An average planting of 800 trees per acre is common. A thinning program should be initiated during year 15 of the plantation cutting every second tree so the remaining trees will size up. On average, the thinned trees will increase two times diameter compared to a plantation with no thinning.

Note* It is important to transplant seedlings that are at least 3 years old and 3 feet tall so they will survive the first and second winters. It is also advisable to use tree shelters or security fencing to protect young pine tree seedlings from grazing dear. Starting a White Pine plantation with tall tree seedlings 10 or 12 feet tall will eliminate the need for shelters and fencing.


Depending on market conditions, clear-grained White Pine may earn gross revenue between $25,000 and $35,000 per acre in year 30 and double that in year 50. Number 1 grade veneer trees could be worth 4 times that amount.


300 White Pine Tree Seedlings

White Pine Average Height: 15 feet

White Pine Tree Seedling Age: 5 years

Email For White Pine Pricing: talltreeseedlings@newleafmail.com

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